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Chicago Style Format:17th Edition-In text Citations : Other


When you viewed an artwork in person at a museum, gallery, or other location, provide information about the institution housing it. Include a URL if the museum website has a page dedicated to the artwork.

Chicago bibliography Author last name, First name. Artwork Title. Year. Format description. Institution Name, City. URL.

Goya, Francisco. The Drowning Dog. 1820–23. Mixed method on mural transferred to canvas. Museo Del Prado, Madrid.

Full note Author first name Last name, Artwork Title, Year, Format description, Institution Name, City, URL.

1. Francisco Goya, The Drowning Dog, 1820–23, mixed method on mural transferred to canvas, Museo Del Prado, Madrid,

Short note Author last name, Shortened Artwork Title.

2. Goya, Drowning Dog.


Citing an image from a book

An image you encountered in a book, journal article, or other print source should be cited by first listing information about the image itself, then listing information about the source it was contained in, including the page number where the image can be found.

Use italics for the title an image originally created outside the context of the book or article (e.g. an artwork) and quotation marks for the title of an image original to the book or article (e.g. an infographic). Use plain text to describe an untitled image.

An example citation of an artwork from a book is shown below.

Chicago bibliography Author last name, First name. Image Title. Year. In Author first name Last name, Book Title, Page number. City: Publisher, Year.

Bruegel, Pieter, the Elder. Christ Carrying the Cross. 1564. In Rose-Marie Hagen and Rainer Hagen, Bruegel, 24. Cologne: Taschen, 2019.

Full note Author first name Last name, Image Title, Year, in Author first name last name, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year), Page number.

1. Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Christ Carrying the Cross, 1564, in Rose-Marie Hagen and Rainer Hagen, Bruegel (Cologne: Taschen, 2019), 24.

Short note Author last name, Shortened Image Title, Page number.

2. Bruegel, Christ Carrying the Cross, 24



Citing an Online Image

Chicago author-date format Author last name, First name. Year. Image Title. Month Day, Year. Format description. Website Name. URL.
Chicago reference entry Cheng, Minder. 2021. Double-Crested Cormorant. Photograph. Flickr. March 21, 2021.
Chicago author-date citation  (Cheng 2021)


In citations for interviews and personal communications, the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication is received should be listed first. This is followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient, if given, and supplemented by details regarding the place and date of the interview/communication. Unpublished interviews and personal communications (such as face-to-face or telephone conversations, letters, emails, or text messages) are best cited in-text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. Published interviews should be cited like periodical articles or book chapters.



An interview published in a print medium is cited much like a periodical, as seen in the first example. An interview broadcast on television, radio, or similar has its own format, as follows:

N:  Firstname Lastname, interview by Firstname Lastname, Title of Broadcasting Program, Publisher, date.

B: Lastname Firstname. Title of Broadcasting Program. By Firstname Lastname. Publisher, date.

This is shown in the second example.

N:. Natasha Trethewy, “Dissection and Other Kinds of Love,” interview by Lindsey Alexander, Sycamore Review, no. 24 (Winter/Spring 2012): 35. 

B: Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

N: Trethewy, Natasha. “Dissection and Other Kinds of Love.” By Lindsey Alexander. Sycamore Review, no. 24 (Winter/Spring 2012): 31-45.

B: Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.


Personal communications are usually referenced within the text or a note. They rarely appear as bibliographic entries. Do not include the e-mail address or other contact information through which the communication was conducted unless it is necessary and you have the source’s permission.


1. Patricia Burns, email message to author, December 15, 2017


Note: If the interview is unpublished, but there is a transcript or recording available, you should include information as to where said transcript/recording can be found. This can be as simple as a URL, or as complex as a location in an institutional archive; the latter is shown in the example below.


1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2017.

2. Frederick L. Hovde, interview by Robert B. Eckles, July 23, 1972, interview 8, transcript and recording, Purdue University Office of Publications Oral History Program collection, MSO 2, Series 1, Sub-Series 16, File 8, Purdue University Archives and Special Collections.




This entry covers the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines for citing lectures, papers presented at meetings or poster sessions, and other similar presentations. Such entries often include the sponsorship, location, and date of the meeting following the title. When such texts are published, they should be treated like a chapter in a book or article in a journal. If the material is available online, include a URL at the end of your citation. The model is as follows:

N: Firstname Lastname, “Title of Lecture” (medium, sponsorship, location, date).

B: Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Lecture.” Medium at sponsorship, location, date.

Note that not all lectures have titles – if you are, for instance, citing a lecture given by a professor to his class, there may be no title to provide. In this case, feel free to skip that portion of the citation.

N: 2. Paul Hanstedt, “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom” (presentation, Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 12, 2009).

B: Hanstedt, Paul. “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom.” Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 2009.

Citing a recorded or transcribed speech

To cite a transcript or video recording of a speech, follow the format appropriate to the source type where you found it, always starting with the speaker’s name. Formats and examples for various source types are shown in the tabs below.

Recorded or transcribed speech citation examples 

Chicago bibliography Speaker last name, First name. “Video Title.” Lecture Series, University Name, filmed Month Day, Year. Video of lecture, Video length. URL.

Shapiro, Ian. “Lecture 1: Introduction to Power and Politics in Today’s World.” DeVane Lectures, Yale University, filmed August 29, 2019. Video of lecture, 56:14.

Full note Speaker first name Last name, “Video Title,” Lecture Series, University Name, Month Day, Year, video of lecture, Video length or Timestamp(s), URL.

1. Ian Shapiro, “Lecture 1: Introduction to Power and Politics in Today’s World,” DeVane Lectures, Yale University, filmed August 29, 2019, video of lecture, 56:14,

Short note Speaker last name, “Shortened Video Title,” Timestamp(s).

2. Shapiro, “Power and Politics,” 14:40.

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