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CSE Format: Notes

General Rules for Notes

The Notes component of an end reference provides useful information or clarification for the reader. Notes are usually optional and have no specific format or punctuation in CSE.

Notes are required in three situations:

  • the URL of an Internet document or webpage (
  • the report or contract number of a technical report (
  • the location of a manuscript or unpublished document (


Internet documents:

If a URL accesses the document directly, enter the URL after "Available from:", as

Halford NG, Curtis TY, Muttucumaru N, Postles J, Mottram DS. 2011. Sugars in crop plants. Ann Appl Biol [Internet] [cited 2011 Mar 17]; 158(1):1-25. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2010.00443.

If a URL does not directly access the document, provide directions to it from the closest addressable site. In the case of online College databases, enter the database name and the journal URL or database host URL after "Available from:", as

Baniahmad, A. (2011). The corepressor Alien as a novel tumor suppressor? Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest [Internet] [cited 2011 Mar 13]; 5(1):11-15. In Academic Search Complete database. Available from: doi:10.1515/HMBCI.2010.074


In either case, add the DOI or accession number after the "Available from: URL",

Krautler B. 2008. Chlorophyll breakdown and chlorophyll catabolites in leaves and fruit. Photochem Photobiol Sci [Internet]. [cited 2011 Feb 28]; 7(10):1114-1120. Available from doi:10.1039/b802356p

Technical report:

Riley MH. 1979. Equations of powered rocket ascent and orbit trajectory. Washington (DC): Naval Research Laboratory (US). Report No: 8237. 

Manuscript (Located at:)

Kendrick M. 2006. Miley remodel papers. 2 boxes. Located at: Miley Library, Fort Pierce, FL; PP2011-C.



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