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CSE Format: What to Include

Key Points

Never include a document in a reference list that you have not seen.

Reference citations for electronic publications! When in doubt, locate all of the information needed to cite an electronic publication as if it were a print document. Then, add the Internet-specific elements ( At the very least this includes the medium designator, [Internet], update and citation dates, and the URL.

Square brackets are used to indentify material that is not found in a document, but that has been added by you.

Title is required for all end references.


Components of End References

End references for books and articles require specific components. The sequencing of these components is prescribed by NISO. Consistent ordering is important to avoid confusion and to help the reader find information. 

Books Journal and Newspaper Articles   
Authors(s)                                       Author(s)
Date Date
Title Article title
Content designator Content designator (optional)
Medium designator Journal or newspaper title
Edition Edition
Secondary author Medium designator
Place of publication Volume
Publisher Issue
Extent or Pagination (optional)       Location or Pagination
Physical description (optional) Physical description
Series (optional Notes

ISO Country Codes

ISO 2-letter country codes for publisher designation

Journal Title Abbreviations

Sources for title-word abbreviations in CSE based on ISO 4

Ottenheimer-North Library

Ottenheimer-South Library

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